Essentially two types:
Resolution: Number of pixels to be seen, like 800*600, or 1,024*768.
Color depth: The number of colors that can be seen. Remember, colors are also encoded by bits or bytes. Using 24 bits, you can create about 16 million colors (true color). High color uses only 16 bits (about 65,000 colors). Black and white uses only 1 bit, grayscale uses few bits (4-8).
Refresh rate in Hertz (Hz): times per second the screen is updated.
Essentially three types at the moment:
laser printer are mainly black and white. color printer use "black", "red", "blue" and "yellow" to create all colors.
Printer don't work on a pixel basis, rather using coordinates
Uses a parallel port cable, allowing to send 8 bytes at the same time. Or (more recently) again USB.