If player A tries to **pass** to player B, two areas are drawn
around A and B. The larger one is an ellipse, the smaller one
almost a strip.
Here you can see the
areas that influences a pass.

Now the (preliminary) odds for success of that pass are

Pro =
4*(100/passlength)*(Strength of A)

versus

Contra =
essentially the sum of all opponent player strengths in the strip
plus 0.35 times the sum of the strengths of all additional opponent
players inside the ellipse.

"Essentialy" means that these strengths
are weighted slightly according to how central they are in these areas.

How are the odds for **shots** calculated?
The (preliminary) odds for goal are

Pro =
10*(100/shotlength)*(Strength of A)

The opposing (preliminary) odds are the sum of two parts.
The first one,

Contra1, is the same as for a pass.
The second term is

Contra2 =
(1/2)*(Strength of Goalkeeper)*
(width of playfield)/(distance from Goalkeeper to ball).

In both cases, these preliminary odds, like 4 : 3, are not taken directly, but rather both numbers are first raised to the power of 1.5. Thus these preliminary odds of 4:3 transform into the final odds of 8 : 5.2.

How the computer trainers work

Erich Prisner, October 2002